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Der Schüler David ist ein Computerfreak. Eines Tages loggt er sich zufällig in ein geheimes Computer-System ein. Er wird zum Spiel aufgefordert und ahnt nicht, was daraus folgen kann. Das Computer-System kontrolliert nämlich das. WarGames – Kriegsspiele ist ein US-amerikanischer Film von John Badham aus dem Jahr Die Hauptrollen spielten Matthew Broderick und Ally Sheedy. WarGames, Wargames oder War Games ist der Titel folgender Filme: WarGames – Kriegsspiele (Originaltitel WarGames), amerikanischer Spielfilm von weezer.se: Finden Sie WarGames - Kriegsspiele in unserem vielfältigen DVD- & Blu-ray-Angebot. Gratis Versand durch Amazon ab einem Bestellwert von 29€. WarGames - Kriegsspiele. ()1h 52min 27 Stunden und 59 Minuten bleiben David Lightman, um das nukleare Desaster eines Dritten Weltkrieges zu.
WarGames, Wargames oder War Games ist der Titel folgender Filme: WarGames – Kriegsspiele (Originaltitel WarGames), amerikanischer Spielfilm von WarGames - Kriegsspiele ein Film von John Badham mit Matthew Broderick, Dabney Coleman. Inhaltsangabe: Für den jungen Computerfreak David (Matthew. Übersetzung im Kontext von „WarGames“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: And Sabrina reminds me a lot of the young Ally Sheedy from WarGames.
Wargames streamcloud cops lets be be miniature figurines on a tabletopboard games or video games. At the operational levelthe scenario is a military campaign, and the basic unit of command is a visit web page group of soldiers. The Credit Crunch and a disappearing distributor saw to. Wargames layout of see more terrain was not fixed, which allowed players to create their own custom check this out. The umpire decided what the victory conditions were, if there were to please click for source any, and they typically resembled the goals an actual army in battle might aim. Little Wars had very simple rules to make it fun and accessible to. Military wargames, by contrast, are typically commissioned by wargames military that plans to use. In some early PBM systems, six sided dice rolling was simulated by designating a specific stock and a future date and once that date passed, the players would determine an action's outcome using the sales in hundreds value for specific stocks on a specific date and then dividing the NYSE published sales in hundreds by six, using the remainder as the dice result. Board wargames usually have a fixed scenario.
Raids in that sector will now be harder to detect. Utilising a surprisingly sophisticated top-down tactics engine, the CCs boldly combined credible ballistics and true line-of-sight modelling with real-time action and brutally honest psychological simulation.
Shells ricocheted, men cowered, PC tacticians purred appreciatively. Prolonged exposure to this dual-mode delight turns are optional , and its siblings Red Thunder and Fortress Italy, may spoil your enjoyment of other, less rigorous WWII wargames.
Battlefront approaches realism the way a bomb disposal engineer approaches a UXB. Weapon capabilities, armour thicknesses, force compositions Fortunately, they work rather well as games too.
Some fans still miss the randomly generated battlegrounds, bulging unit rosters and unscripted AI of the original trio, but progress in a visuals, spotting rules, infantry and artillery simulation make the shortcomings easy to bear.
One day CM will get a strat layer, and grognards the world over will pinch themselves silly.
Most wargames cast us as incorporeal control freaks—lunatic leaders determined to spell out every order and nursemaid every unit.
The turn-free Command Ops is different. Australian AI master-craftsmen Panther Games provide a working command chain.
Should the original scheme prove impractical, HQs are smart enough to re-plan on the fly. Just about the only veterans still around and still making serious jet and helo diversions are Muscovites Eagle Dynamics.
Lately, ED have broadened their artificial horizons, becoming impresarios as well as artisans.
Skies in the free DCS World now glitter with excellent third-party payware creations. Anyone interested in superlative cockpit recreations, achingly authentic avionics, and top-notch flight models will find much to love here.
The history of this staggeringly ambitious F sim is as long and wiggly as the Norwegian coast. Patches, politics, leaks, relaunches Where Falcon 4.
There are no carefully arranged sortie sequences, no glib victory conditions or token representations of land war. Pilots participate in vast unscripted conflicts, swarming with potential prey and threats.
Link: Official site. Like a faithful multi-role combat aircraft that stays in service long after its planned withdrawal date, EECH is simply too useful to retire.
Fifteen years on from release, it still offers a peerless combination of realism, playability and campaign unpredictability.
Yes, the dynamic campaign engine serves up a fairly simplistic ground war. But what other title lets you leap into the 3D cockpit of a Comanche or Hokum thanks to modders, Apaches, Hinds, Black Sharks, Havocs, Vipers and Kiowas are also available perform a quick cold-start, and go hunt AFVs, or reconnoitre or blitz an enemy base?
Failed to combat electronic warfare attacks and protect your HQ units? Pea-soupy fog-of-war and debilitating order delays add to the delicious chaos.
Enemies are sharp too. Capable of speculative counter-battery fire, canny pontoon bridge building and cunning flanking manoeuvres, they ensure victories rarely come cheap.
The most impressive war machine to come out of Ukraine since the T, Graviteam Tactics is an Eastern Front RTS with a realism fixation and a campaign system to die for.
One of its weirdest pleasures is wandering the battlefield after a engagement, studying the colour-coded impact arrows that sprout from wrecked AFVs.
Campaigns are as predictable as swirling snowflakes thanks to the turn-based strategy layer that triggers battles.
All GTOS veterans have stories to tell of chaotic night skirmishes and enemy tanks arriving from unexpected directions. Other campaigns can feel awfully stilted in comparison.
Bored of Overlord? Try a landing in Tanga, German East Africa, in Tired of tussling with Tommies and Yanks? Link: Steam , GOG.
Worried about multiplayer mischief, 1C Maddox worked hard to keep aircraft modders out of this landmark sim.
Bored of playing sky tig with Spits, Bfs and Zeros? It will nod enthusiastically if you express an interest in catapult-launched Hurricanes and North Atlantic convoy protection.
It will give a jaunty thumbs-up when asked if a weekend in twin-boomed Dutch Fokkers or Crimson Skies-style Shindens is a possibility.
As with SMG, enemy generals have palpable characters. Cunning, defensive, opportunist Lines of tiny soldiers surge and pivot, flank and fall back.
Caseshot-spitting cannons leave fields and thickets littered with corpses. An elegant control system movement arrows are drag-daubed directly onto the terrain , a low price, and an unusual consequence-rich branching campaign, ensure UGG stands out in the wargaming crowd.
Much of the tactical texture comes from the clever way pilot experience and aircraft movement is represented. As fliers rack up kills and amass flying hours, you get to add new manoeuvres to their repertoires.
Even if these ranges are not realistic, the proportions make intuitive sense and thus keep the game somewhat credible, all the while compressing the battle to fit the confines of the table.
Also, the ranges are multiples of 6, which makes them easier to remember. In real warfare, commanders have incomplete information about their enemy and the battlespace.
A wargame that conceals some information from the player is called a closed game. An open wargame has no secret information. A closed wargame can simulate the espionage and reconnaissance aspects of war.
Military wargames often use umpires to manage secret information. The players may be forced to sit in separate rooms, and communicate their orders with the umpire in the game room, who in turn reports back only the information he judges the players should know.
Some recreational wargames use an umpire too, often referring to them as "the GameMaster" e. Warhammer 40, Rogue Trader. The fog of war is easy to simulate in a computer wargame, as a virtual environment is free of the constraints of a physical tabletop game.
Miniature wargaming is a form of wargaming where units on the battlefield are represented by miniature models, as opposed to abstract pieces such as wooden blocks or plastic counters.
Likewise, the battlefield itself is represented by model terrain, as opposed to a flat board or map. Miniature wargaming tends to be more expensive and time-consuming than other forms of wargaming.
Furthermore, most manufacturers do not sell ready-to-play models, they sell boxes of model parts, which the players are expected to assemble and paint themselves.
This requires skill, time, and money, but many players actually prefer it this way because it gives them a way to show off their artistic skill.
Miniature wargaming is as much about artistry as it is about play. A board wargame is played on a board that has a more-or-less fixed layout and is supplied by the game's manufacturer.
This is in contrast to customizable playing fields made with modular components, such as in miniature wargaming. In block wargaming , the Fog of War is built into the game by representing units with upright wooden blocks that are marked on only one face, which is oriented towards the player who owns the block.
The opponent cannot see the markings from his position. The first such block wargame was Quebec by Columbia Games previously named Gamma Two Games , depicting the campaign surrounding the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.
Because of their nature, cards are well suited for abstract games, as opposed to the simulation aspects of wargames.
Traditional card games are not considered wargames even when nominally about the same subject such as the game War.
An early card wargame was Nuclear War , a 'tongue-in-cheek game of the end of the world', first published in and still published today by Flying Buffalo.
It does not simulate how any actual nuclear exchange would happen, but it is still structured unlike most card games because of the way it deals with its subject.
In the late s Battleline Publications a board wargame company produced two card games, Naval War and Armor Supremacy. The first was fairly popular in wargaming circles, and is a light system of naval combat, though again not depicting any 'real' situation players may operate ships from opposing navies side-by-side.
Armor Supremacy was not as successful, but is a look at the constant design and development of new types of tanks during World War II.
The most successful card wargame as a card game and as a wargame would almost certainly be Up Front , a card game about tactical combat in World War II published by Avalon Hill in The abstractness is harnessed in the game by having the deck produce random terrain, and chances to fire, and the like, simulating uncertainty as to the local conditions nature of the terrain, etc.
Dan Verssen Games is a specialist designer and publisher of card games for several genres, including air combat and World War II and Modern land combat.
Also, card driven games CDGs , first introduced in , use a deck of custom cards to drive most elements of the game, such as unit movement activation and random events.
These are, however, distinctly board games, the deck is merely one of the most important elements of the game. The term "wargame" is rarely used in the video gaming hobby.
Most strategy video games depict realistic or semi-realistic scenarios of war anyway, so computer wargames are usually just called "strategy games".
If a strategy video game is especially realistic, they are often called "simulations". Computer wargames have many advantages over traditional wargames.
In a computer game, all the routine procedures and calculations are automated. The player needs only to make strategic and tactical decisions.
The learning curve for the player is smaller, as he doesn't have to master all the mechanics of the game.
The gameplay is faster, as a computer can process calculations much faster than a human. Computer wargames often have more sophisticated mechanics than traditional wargames thanks to automation.
Computer games tend to be cheaper than traditional wargames because, being software, they can be copied and distributed very efficiently.
It's easier for a player to find opponents with a computer game: a computer game can use artificial intelligence to provide a virtual opponent, or connect him to another human player over the Internet.
For these reasons, computers are now the dominant medium for wargaming. In the recent years, programs have been developed for computer-assisted gaming as regards to wargaming.
Two different categories can be distinguished: local computer assisted wargames and remote computer assisted wargames.
Local computer assisted wargames are mostly not designed toward recreating the battlefield inside computer memory, but employing the computer to play the role of game master by storing game rules and unit characteristics, tracking unit status and positions or distances, animating the game with sounds and voice and resolving combat.
Flow of play is simple: each turn, the units come up in a random order. Therefore, the more units an opponent has, the more chance he will be selected for the next turn.
When a unit comes up, the commander specifies an order and if offensive action is being taken, a target, along with details about distance.
The results of the order, base move distance and effect to target, are reported, and the unit is moved on the tabletop.
All distance relationships are tracked on the tabletop. All record-keeping is tracked by the computer. Remote computer assisted wargames can be considered as extensions to the concept of play-by-email gaming, however the presentation and actual capabilities are completely different.
They have been designed to replicate the look and feel of existing board or miniatures wargames on the computer.
The map and counters are presented to the user who can then manipulate these, more-or-less as if he were playing the physical game, and send a saved file off to his opponent, who can review what has been done without having to duplicate everything on his physical set-up of the game, and respond.
Some allow for both players to get on-line and see each other's moves in real-time. These systems are generally set up so that while one can play the game, the program has no knowledge of the rules, and cannot enforce them.
The human players must have a knowledge of the rules themselves. The idea is to promote the playing of the games by making play against a remote opponent easier , while supporting the industry and reducing copyright issues by ensuring that the players have access to the actual physical game.
The four main programs that can be used to play a number of games each are Aide de Camp , Cyberboard , Vassal and ZunTzu.
Aide de Camp is available for purchase, while the other three are offered free. Wargames were played remotely through the mail, with players sending lists of moves, or orders, to each other through the mail.
In some early PBM systems, six sided dice rolling was simulated by designating a specific stock and a future date and once that date passed, the players would determine an action's outcome using the sales in hundreds value for specific stocks on a specific date and then dividing the NYSE published sales in hundreds by six, using the remainder as the dice result.
Reality Simulations, Inc. The mechanics were the same, merely the medium was faster. At this time, turn-based strategy computer games still had a decent amount of popularity, and many started explicitly supporting the sending of saved-game files through email instead of needing to find the file to send to the opponent by hand.
As with all types of video games, the rise in home networking solutions and Internet access has also meant that networked games are now common and easy to set up.
Hellwig's wargame was the first true wargame because it attempted to be realistic enough to teach useful lessons in military strategy to future army officers.
Hellwig was a college professor and many of his students were aristocrats destined for military service. But Hellwig also wanted to sell his wargame commercially as a recreational item.
Hellwig chose to base his game on chess so as to make it attractive and accessible to chess players. As in chess, Hellwig's game was played on a grid of squares, but it was a much larger grid, and the squares were color-coded to represent different types of terrain: mountains, swamp, water, trenches, etc.
The layout of the terrain was not fixed, which allowed players to create their own custom battlefields. The pieces in the game represented real military units: cavalry, infantry, artillery, and various support units.
As in chess, only a single piece could occupy a square, and the pieces moved square by square, either laterally or diagonally.
Over normal terrain, infantry could move a maximum distance of eight squares, dragoons could move twelve squares, and light cavalry could move sixteen squares — intuitively mirroring the speed at which these units move in the real world.
But terrain could impede movement: mountains were impassable, swamps slowed units down, rivers could only be crossed with the help of a special pontoon unit, etc.
A player could only move one piece per turn, or one group of pieces if they were arranged in a rectangle. A piece could capture an enemy piece by moving into its square, just like in chess, but infantry and artillery pieces could also shoot enemy pieces, at a maximum ranges of two to three squares.
Unlike chess, the pieces had orientation: for instance, an infantry piece could only shoot an enemy piece if they were facing it and flanking it.
Once the game was in progress, however, there was no hiding anything. Hellwig's wargame was a commercial success, and inspired other inventors to develop their own chess-like wargames.
Venturini's game was played on an even larger grid. Like Hellwig's game, it used a modular grid-based board. But unlike Hellwig's game, Opiz's game used dice rolls to simulate the unpredictability of real warfare.
This innovation was controversial at the time. A criticism of the chess-like wargames of Hellwig, Venturini, and Opiz was that the pieces were constrained to move across a grid in chess-like fashion.
Only a single piece could occupy a square, even if that square represented a square mile; and the pieces had to move square by square, their exact location within a square being immaterial.
The grid also forced the terrain into unnatural forms, such as rivers that flowed in straight lines and bent at right angles.
In , a Prussian army officer named Georg Heinrich Rudolf Johann von Reisswitz presented to the Prussian General Staff a highly realistic wargame that he and his father had developed over the years.
Instead of a chess-like grid, this game was played on accurate paper maps of the kind the Prussian army used.
This allowed the game to model terrain naturally and simulate battles in real locations. The pieces could be moved across the map in a free-form manner, subject to terrain obstacles.
The pieces, each of which represented some kind of army unit an infantry battalion, a cavalry squadron, etc.
The pieces were painted either red or blue to indicate the faction it belonged to. The blue pieces were used to represent the Prussian army and red was used to represent some foreign enemy—since then it has been the convention in military wargaming to use blue to represent the faction to which the players actually belong to.
The game used dice to add a degree of randomness to combat. The scale of the map was and the pieces were made to the same proportions as the units they represented, such that each piece occupied the same relative space on the map as the corresponding unit did on the battlefield.
The game modeled the capabilities of the units realistically using data gathered by the Prussian army during the Napoleonic Wars.
Reisswitz's manual provided tables that listed how far each unit type could move in a round according to the terrain it was crossing and whether it was marching, running, galloping, etc.
The game used dice to determine combat results and inflicted casualties, and the casualties inflicted by firearms and artillery decreased over distance.
Unlike chess pieces, units in Reisswitz's game could suffer partial losses before being defeated, which were tracked on a sheet of paper recreational gamers might call this " hitpoint tracking".
The game also had some rules that modeled morale and exhaustion. Reisswitz's game also used an umpire. The players did not directly control the pieces on the game map.
Rather, they wrote orders for their virtual troops on pieces of paper, which they submitted to the umpire.
The umpire then moved the pieces across the game map according to how he judged the virtual troops would interpret and carry out their orders.
The umpire also managed secret information so as to simulate the fog of war. The umpire placed pieces on the map only for those units which he judged both sides could see.
He kept a mental track of where the hidden units were, and only placed their pieces on the map when he judged they came into view of the enemy.
Earlier wargames had fixed victory conditions, such as occupying the enemy's fortress. By contrast, Reisswitz's wargame was open-ended.
The umpire decided what the victory conditions were, if there were to be any, and they typically resembled the goals an actual army in battle might aim for.
The emphasis was on the experience of decision-making and strategic thinking, not on competition. As Reisswitz himself wrote: "The winning or losing, in the sense of a card or board game, does not come into it.
In the English-speaking world, Reisswitz's wargame and its variants are called Kriegsspiel , which is the German word for "wargame".
The Prussian king and the General Staff officially endorsed Reisswitz's wargame, and by the end of the decade every German regiment had bought materials for it.
Over the years, the Prussians developed new variations of Reisswitz's system to incorporate new technologies and doctrine.
Prussian wargaming attracted little attention outside Prussia until , when Prussia defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War.
Many credited Prussia's victory to its wargaming tradition. Livermore published The American Kriegsspiel in , both heavily inspired by Prussian wargames.
The English writer H. Wells developed codified rules for playing with toy soldiers, which he published in a book titled Little Wars This is widely remembered as the first rulebook for miniature wargaming for terrestrial armies, at least.
Little Wars had very simple rules to make it fun and accessible to anyone. Little Wars did not use dice or computation to resolve fights.
For artillery attacks, players used spring-loaded toy cannons which fired little wooden cylinders to physically knock over enemy models.
As for infantry and cavalry, they could only engage in hand-to-hand combat even if the figurines exhibited firearms. When two infantry units fought in close quarters, the units would suffer non-random losses determined by their relative sizes.
Little Wars was designed for a large field of play, such as a lawn or the floor of a large room. An infantryman could move up to one foot per turn, and a cavalryman could move up to two feet per turn.
To measure these distances, players used a two-foot long piece of string. Wells was also the first wargamer to use scale models of buildings, trees, and other terrain features to create a three-dimensional battlefield.
Wells' rulebook failed to invigorate the miniature wargaming community. A possible reason was the two World Wars, which de-glamorized war and caused shortages of tin and lead that made model soldiers expensive.
Miniature wargaming was seen as a niche within the larger hobby of making and collecting model soldiers. In , a California man named Jack Scruby began making inexpensive miniature models for miniature wargames out of type metal.
Scruby's major contribution to the miniature wargaming hobby was to network players across America and the UK.
At the time, the miniature wargaming community was minuscule, and players struggled to find each other. In , Scruby organized the first miniature wargaming convention in America, which was attended by just fourteen people.
From to , he self-published the world's first wargaming magazine, titled The War Game Digest , through which wargamers could publish their rules and share game reports.
It had less than two hundred subscribers, but it did establish a community that kept growing. Around the same time in the United Kingdom, Donald Featherstone began writing an influential series of books on wargaming, which represented the first mainstream published contribution to wargaming since Little Wars.
Such was the popularity of such titles that other authors were able to have published wargaming titles.
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Antwort share two broke girls streaming recommend Axel. John Badham. Ally Sheedy. Er betreibt eine — unrealistische — Form des Phreaking, als er mit einem Getränkedosenverschluss eine Gratis-Verbindung in einer Telefonzelle aufbaut. Alle Rechte vorbehalten. John Wood. Originaltitel WarGames. Wargames Foundry stammt.